Annapolis, Maryland

Advocacy-Annapolis-A spring 2012 rally in Annapolis for clean water legislation draws the governor and lots of support. Photo by Emmy Nicklin/CBF StaffA rally in Annapolis for clean water legislation draws the governor and lots of support.
Photo by Emmy Nicklin/CBF Staff

About CBF's Maryland Office

Geographically, economically, and culturally, the Chesapeake Bay is the center of Maryland life. But pollution from the state's cities, sprawling suburbs, and poultry and dairy farms has severely degraded the Bay. The Chesapeake Bay Foundation was founded in Annapolis—Maryland's state capital—in 1964. From Annapolis, we advocate for strong legislation to protect water quality, educate thousands of students and teachers a year about Bay issues, restore oyster reefs and stream buffers, and lobby for resources to help farmers and communities limit polluted run-off and reach water quality standards.

The Philip Merrill Environmental Education Center opened in 2001 as both CBF's headquarters and the organization's Maryland state office. In design, construction, and operation, the building reflects CBF's mission to protect and restore the Bay. The Merrill Center is one of the world’s most energy-efficient buildings, incorporating natural elements into a fully functional workplace that has minimal impact on its Bay- and creek-front surroundings. Find out more about the Merrill Center.

Development encroaches on farmland in rural Maryland. Photo courtesty NRCS/Ron NicholsDecisions about development can have a profound impact on local waters and quality of life. Photo courtesty NRCS/Ron Nichols

How Citizens Can Engage in Local Development Decisions Affecting Clean Water

Growth can have a profound impact on local waters and quality of life. It's important to speak out when decisions about development are on the table. But for many citizens, participating in the development review process can be a confusing, frustrating, and even costly experience. Access the resources from our webinar, "Dive In! How Citizens Can Engage in Local Development Decisions Affecting Clean Water."

A New Day, A New Way for Oyster Restoration

A new strategy for growing oysters began in 2013 in Harris Creek. Today, the creek is host to one of the largest oyster restoration projects ever undertaken in the Chesapeake Bay.

Read More

Example of a large chicken facility in Maryland.(Google Earth) Inset - example of pens commonly used in chicken facilities. (iStock) (Left) One of several large chicken operations on Maryland's Eastern Shore. (Google Earth)   (Right)  An example of a common industrial chicken operation. (iStock)

Reducing Phosphorus Pollution in Maryland

Phosphorus is one of the three major pollutants affecting the health of the Chesapeake Bay. Excess phosphorus contributes to dead zones—areas with low levels of oxygen where marine life cannot live—in creeks, rivers, and the Chesapeake Bay.

One of the largest sources of phosphorus is manure. In fact, farm land where manure is applied as fertilizer has, on average, three times more phosphorus runoff than land not receiving manure.

phosphorus pollution by source

Click image to view larger

The latest University of Maryland estimates show that nearly half of Maryland farm fields are polluting rivers and streams and the Chesapeake Bay due to excessive levels of phosphorus from manure. This problem is especially troubling on the Eastern Shore, where the Maryland Department of the Environment estimates that farmers apply 228,000 tons of excess poultry manure a year on Eastern Shore farm fields. The Eastern Shore's Choptank River is the only major river in Maryland where phosphorus pollution is on the rise.

As part of the Chesapeake Clean Water Blueprint, Maryland is required to reduce phosphorus pollution 48 percent by 2025. The state's Watershed Implementation Plan (WIP) includes methods for achieving that goal. One of the most important methods is reducing the amount of phosphorous applied to fields that have the highest risk of phosphorus runoff, which pollutes local waters, especially on the Eastern Shore. Enter the Phosphorus Management Tool, a science-based method of identifying the fields that contain the most phosphorous and have the highest risk of phosphorus runoff.

How the Phosphorus Management Tool Works

Phosphorus, like nitrogen and other nutrients, is vital to crops. However, like nitrogen, when there is more phosphorus in the soil than the crops can take up, the excess runs off the field and into nearby streams. Soil can be tested to determine how much phosphorus it contains, and is then classified as having "low," "medium," "optimum," or "excessive" amounts. In addition to how much excess phosphorus is in the soil, the Phosphorus Management Tool takes into consideration the slope of the land, type of soil, and proximity of waters—all factors that affect the likelihood that excess phosphorus will find its way into local waterways.

New Maryland state regulations use the Phosphorus Management Tool to identify hot spots where the soil is saturated with phosphorus and where other factors signify a high risk of runoff. Future applications of manure would be limited in such areas and farmers directed to implement techniques to remove some of the excess.

The Phosphorus Management Tool reflects more than 10 years of research conducted by University of Maryland scientists in collaboration with regional and national experts. Revising and updating the tool is an element of Maryland's Watershed Implementation Plan (WIP), the federally mandated document created by the state to outline specific steps it will take to protect and restore the Chesapeake Bay.

Implementation is Long Overdue

These regulations have been in the works for years, and the Maryland Department of Agriculture already delayed implementation twice in response to concerns by some farmers who may be affected. The most recent version of the draft regulations were issued in the Maryland Register on December 1, 2014. This version reflects a number of changes requested by farmers, including a six-year, extended phase-in period to allow farmers more time to transition to practices that reduce pollution.

Still, the Farm Bureau, Perdue and other chicken growers, and some farmers are continuing to fight implementation of these important regulations addressing a major source of phosphorus pollution.

Through our long years of cooperative problem solving with farmers, our devotion to supporting scientifically sound policy changes, and our own experience running Clagett Farm, CBF understands the trepidation some farmers feel toward the new regulations.

Some individual farmers may shoulder an additional financial burden under the PMT, which is why we have supported cost share programs to mitigate the potential of increasing costs to affected farmers. We continue to support these programs, and believe that, in addition, big agricultural corporations should help pay for the cost of cleaning up the manure their chickens produce.

At the same time, not all agricultural producers will be negatively impacted by the new PMT regulations, and in fact, some will benefit from greater availability of manure fertilizer that they can readily use on fields that need additional phosphorus. Costs and benefits will shift geographically based on the location of fields that can use additional phosphorus. A recent economic analysis on the regulations affirms that the PMT will not economically ruin the agricultural industry on Maryland's Eastern Shore.

The Economics of the PMT

Reducing pollution from agriculture is one of the most cost-effective ways—acre for acre, and pound for pound—to restore local water quality and the Bay. It's a much better "bang for the buck" than other, more costly solutions like wastewater treatment plant upgrades, which have already been done, supported by tax dollars.

Practices like the PMT that reduce pollution are also estimated to provide additional economic benefits in Maryland of $4.6 billion per year if the Clean Water Blueprint is fully implemented. Thanks to improvements in soil health and productivity, benefits from Maryland's agricultural lands will increase by more than $73 million per year.

Additionally, the PMT presents an opportunity for economic growth and innovation through the potential for new technologies to process, transport, and export excess phosphorus once the new regulation is implemented. While restoring water quality, these new regulations also provide a reliable supply of phosphorus for new companies seeking to develop methods to make phosphorus more readily available and transportable to American and international markets where phosphorus is a limited commodity.

Likewise, companies have already successfully tested new technologies to convert manure into energy, and simply lack the positive economic pressure the PMT regulation would provide to invest in scaling up pilot projects to commercial scale—thus making these technologies into a cost-effective solution for our current manure crisis.

We all need to do our part to restore clean water across Maryland and on the Eastern Shore. If we don't begin to put these changes to agricultural practices into action—practices that we know cause a significant amount of pollution to local streams, groundwater, and the Bay—we will fail to meet the goals of the Chesapeake Clean Water Blueprint.

Without implementation of the PMT, Eastern Shore creeks and rivers will remain polluted, unsafe for swimming and fishing. Crabs, oysters and other marine life will continue to suffer from the pollution.

The capitol dome in Annapolis viewed from Chesapeake Bay. Photo by Donna Rice.The capitol dome in Annapolis viewed from Chesapeake Bay. Photo by Donna Rice.

Eleventh Hour Passage of Stormwater Bill Caps Remarkable Session for Bay

The eleventh hour passage of a bill that helps reduce polluted runoff from cities and suburbs in Maryland capped a surprisingly successful session for the Chesapeake Bay in the Maryland General Assembly.

The House and Senate gave final approval to SB 863, which lets Baltimore City and the state's nine most populated counties decide how they want to pay for programs to reduce polluted runoff, but holds them more accountable for doing the job. That is a major victory for the Chesapeake Bay. Polluted runoff is the main source of contamination for many urban and suburban creeks and rivers. Yet for years local governments have neglected upkeep to their stormwater systems, and failed to meet clean-up goals set by state and federal law.

"We were holding our breath for the past few days and hours. The stormwater bill is a remarkable victory. What a turnaround for Bay issues this session," said Alison Prost, Maryland Executive Director for the Chesapeake Bay Foundation (CBF).

"We are grateful to Senate President Thomas V. "Mike" Miller and House Speaker Michael E. Busch for their leadership on this bill. We also appreciate the help of the Senate Education, Health and Environmental Affairs and House Environment and Transportation committees," Prost said.

The session also was notable for work to reduce pollution from manure used on farm fields. Senator Pinsky and Delegate Lafferty were the chief sponsors of legislation to require farmers to apply only the amount of manure on their fields which crops can use. The bill was amended by the Senate environmental committee. That process helped bring farmers and environmentalists to the table. It also helped improve draft regulations Governor Hogan had announced. The Maryland Department of Agriculture published these improved regulations as draft on April 3rd. That initiative is expected to yield major improvements long-term in water quality in creeks and rivers on the Eastern Shore, and ultimately in the Bay.

Poultry manure contains high levels of phosphorus. Many fields of the Eastern Shore are saturated with phosphorus from years of over-application. Crops can't utilize the additional phosphorus. The excess phosphorus washes off into nearby creeks and rivers, and sparks dead zones of low oxygen. The Maryland Department of Agriculture estimated 228,000 tons of excess manure are applied to fields each year on the Shore.

Together, the efforts undertaken by the Maryland General Assembly and Governor Hogan address two of the biggest sources of pollution entering the Chesapeake–farms and urban areas.

But at the beginning of the session prospects were far from rosy. Hogan had vowed to repeal landmark legislation approved in 2012 to deal with polluted runoff. That legislation had been attacked unfairly and inaccurately for more than a year as a tax on rain. Some legislators sympathized with that attack. The governor also had rejected an earlier version of manure regulations.

"Legislative leaders heard our concerns on the stormwater issue. The original bill could have been a big setback for cleaning up waters in populated areas. They made substantial improvements in the bill," Prost said. "And Governor Hogan and lawmakers also listened to us on the manure issue. We started this session in rough waters and thankfully for the environment cooler heads and calmer winds prevailed."

Other environmental successes this session include the passage of:

Budget—Governor's Hogan's budget as introduced reflected the state's commitment to cleaning up the Bay and our local rivers and streams.  That funding has been largely left intact.  Under the leadership of Chairwoman McIntosh and the House Appropriations Committee, the budget as passed also partially restored funding for our critical land preservation funding.

SB200—This bill prohibits the manufacture and sale of personal care products that contain nonbiodegradable synthetic plastic "microbeads." These tiny objects pass through wastewater treatments plants and end up in local waters and the Chesapeake Bay. Once in the water these beads chemically attract additional pollutants and enter the food chain when they are consumed by marine life.

HB449—This bill prohibits the state of Maryland from issuing permits for the unconventional hydraulic fracturing exploration and production of natural gas until October 2017. During that time the state must explore and develop protective regulations.

HB287—This bill benefits the growing oyster aquaculture industry by expanding penalties for poaching. Aquaculture is beneficial to the Bay's health by increasing the natural oyster filtration function while decreasing harvest pressure on the natural oyster population.

CBF also helped defeat several bad bills that would opened up oyster sanctuaries to harvest and would have undone the state's highly successful oyster restoration programs.

More information on the final status of significant bills and legislation


A Saved Bay = A Better Economy for Maryland worth $4.5 Billion per year

Report Identifies Natural Benefits of Restored Bay

A first-ever peer-reviewed analysis released by CBF finds that the economic benefits provided by nature in the Chesapeake Bay watershed will total $130 billion annually when the Chesapeake Clean Water Blueprint, the regional plan to restore the Bay, is fully implemented.

Baltimore Inner Harbor Oyster Gardening Video from coolgreenschools.comThis link will take you to view the video on

Oyster Gardening in the Inner Harbor

In September 2014, CBF and the Waterfront Partnership expanded their oyster restoration program, formally kicking off The Greater Baltimore Oyster Partnership.  Plans for 2014 are to grow 165,00 baby oysters in Baltimore's Inner Harbor with the help of local residents.  Check it out with this video on

The organizations tested out the program in October 2013 as part of the Healthy Harbor Initiative to create a swimmable and fishable Harbor. Members of the local business community planted 85,000 oyster spat in five designated oyster gardens around Baltimore's Inner Harbor. While oysters in the wild often see only a one percent survival rate due to predation and low oxygen levels, the spat grown by the Oyster Partnership maintained a 70 percent survival rate and increased 40 percent in size.

"With more than 50,000 oysters grown in the Harbor and planted on the reef at Fort Carroll, along with the incredible support we received from the local community, expanding the program was the obvious next step," said Adam Lindquist, Healthy Harbor project manager for the Waterfront Partnership.

"There's just so much excitement and opportunity around growing more oysters in the Harbor," said Terry Cummings, director of CBF's Baltimore Initiative. "We are thrilled to have new partners, the Downtown Sailing Center and the Baltimore Marine Centers, joining us for this expansion. We look forward to seeing the program grow and grow."

This year members of public are participating, building their own cages and learning how to be oyster gardeners. Their cages will be deployed along the piers of the Downtown Sailing Center and Baltimore Marine Centers' Lighthouse Point. Businesses sponsoring oyster gardens and providing volunteers who will tend to the cages include Brown Advisory, BGE/Constellation, Legg Mason and T.Rowe Price, all of whom participated last year, as well as engineering, architectural and planning firm Whitman, Requardt & Associates, LLP who is new to the program.

"Our boaters are always looking for an opportunity to give back to the Chesapeake Bay," said Jessie Bowling, director of sales and marketing at Baltimore Marine Centers. "The partnership is a perfect way for our boaters to get involved and make an impact."

In the spring, all of the volunteers will pull out their mature oysters and plant them on an oyster reef near Fort Carroll.

Photo copyright Karine Aigner/iLCPPhoto © Karine Aigner/iLCP

Critical Actions Maryland's Elected Leaders Can Take to Help Save the Bay

Many of us cherish the Chesapeake Bay and our local waterways. We want to pass on a legacy of clean water to future generations. How we create that future in the world of policy, leadership, and on the ground action, however, can be confusing.

Image of blue crabs and June 2014 milestone reports. Blue crab photo by Kristi Carroll/CBF StaffBlue crabs photo by Kristi Carroll/CBF Staff

Milestone Analysis: Pollution Reduced, Agriculture and Urban Runoff Reductions Falling Short

Watershed Implementation Plan (WIP) Milestones, two-year commitments made by the Bay states and District of Columbia to reduce pollution, are a key part of the Chesapeake Clean Water Blueprint. An analysis of the 2012-2013 Milestones showed that Maryland met its pollution-reduction goals for 2013. However, a closer look at the data reveals there is a long way to go to meet the 2017 and 2025 goals. Find Out More    Read the press release

Residential stormwater runoff. Photo © 2010 Krista Schlyer/iLCPA brown river of sediment flows into a storm drain, taking chemicals, oil, and other pollutants from streets and yards with it. Photo © 2010 Krista Schlyer/iLCP 

The Facts About Polluted Runoff and Maryland's Stormwater Utility Fees

Did you know that the only source of pollution in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed that is still increasing is polluted runoff?

Q: What is stormwater/polluted runoff?
Q: Why has urban and suburban polluted runoff emerged as a national issue?
Q: Why has polluted runoff become a big issue in Maryland specifically?
Q: My jurisdiction has a stormwater utility fee. What is that?
Q: Are stormwater fees required by the state?
Q: Why does the Watershed Protection and Restoration Program only apply to some places in Maryland?
Q: If we already pay taxes, why does my local government need to charge additional fees to restore the Bay?
Q: We already pay the Bay Restoration Fee ("flush tax"). Why do I have to pay a stormwater fee, too?
Q: Am I being charged the same amount as other property owners with more pavement or hard surfaces?
Q: What about the assertion that stormwater fees are a tax on rain (or a "rain tax")?
Q: Are the fees used locally?
Q: For places that have fees, why do they differ?
Q: Does the Chesapeake Bay Foundation receive funding from the "rain tax?"
Q: Can I have my fee reduced? I've heard some jurisdictions are offering discounts.
Q: Don't we have bigger pollution problems to worry about? Isn't the water pollution that causes closed beaches and unsafe swim areas caused mostly by sewage spills, not polluted runoff?
Q: Do stormwater utility fees or the cost of cleaning up polluted runoff hurt Maryland's business competitiveness?

Q: What is stormwater/polluted runoff?

A: As water flows off of our streets, parking lots, and building rooftops, it picks up fertilizers, pesticides, oil, and automotive fluids, pet waste, sediment, and other pollutants. This simple process—untreated stormwater flowing through gutters and storm drains—pollutes our rivers and streams and threatens our drinking water. It also causes problems like local flooding of streets and homes, beach closures, fish advisories, and sewage system overflows.

Q: Why has urban and suburban polluted runoff emerged as a national issue?

A: Up until about the 1980s, builders didn’t know much about the problems associated with polluted runoff. They just designed developments to flush the water off the property quickly. Now we realize runoff should be slowed down and soaked up to prevent pollution from running off developed areas and into our local rivers and streams.

In fact, in the Chesapeake Bay region, this sort of pollution is the only major pollution sector still on the rise. Air pollution is down, as is pollution from wastewater treatment plants and agriculture. Tackling urban and suburban runoff remains a big challenge as our state continues to grow.

Q: Why has polluted runoff become a big issue in Maryland specifically?

A: Maryland's cities and suburban areas contain some of the highest concentrations of impervious surfaces—hard surfaces where water can't be absorbed by and filtered through the ground—in the whole Chesapeake Bay watershed. And, not surprisingly, the state also has a huge list of waterways that are officially considered polluted. In fact, the "impaired waters" list includes waterways in every county in the state. Damage from this pollution to the Chesapeake Bay is also dramatic, because Maryland's concentrated areas of urban and suburban development are close in proximity to the Bay compared to urbanized areas in most of Pennsylvania and Virginia.

The Chesapeake Clean Water Blueprint requires each of the Bay states to reduce pollution or be subject to consequences for failure. But polluted runoff has ramifications far beyond the health of the Bay. This pollution damages local rivers and streams, is often responsible for expensive flooding, and, especially after a significant rainfall, can put human health at risk.

Q: My jurisdiction has a stormwater utility fee. What is that?

A: Just like other services, such as water and sewer or gas and electric, stormwater can be managed as a utility that is supported by a billed fee. A stormwater utility fee is based on the idea that all developed properties contribute to polluted runoff in their watershed and should help support efforts to reduce this runoff and the pollution that it carries.

Q: Are stormwater fees required by the state?

A: In 2012, the Maryland General Assembly passed the Watershed Protection and Restoration Program. While this legislation originally required the 10 largest and most urban jurisdictions in the state to set fees to address their polluted runoff problems, revisions to the law in 2015 removed that fee requirement. It did not remove the requirement that these jurisdictions clean up stormwater pollution. In fact, it increased accountability for doing so by requiring that jurisdictions demonstrate they have adequate funding and plans in place to reduce their polluted runoff.

Q: Why does the Watershed Protection and Restoration Program only apply to some places in Maryland?

A: These 10 urban areas have the most land that doesn't allow water to filter slowly into the ground (impervious area). They are also the only jurisdictions in Maryland charged with meeting very strict federal Clean Water Act permits. Under the revised 2015 state law, these counties are required to have plans in place that demonstrate what activities they will undertake to clean up polluted runoff and how they will pay for it. Counties are required to have adequate funding set aside in a dedicated fund to be used only to clean up polluted runoff. How they come up with this funding is up to them. Some counties will allocate it from their general funds while others will keep their stormwater utility fees in place to ensure they have the funding needed.

Recognizing the water quality threat posed by polluted runoff, some counties and municipalities have taken a lead in addressing the problem without requirements from state law or Clean Water Act permits. Some have had similar fees and programs in place for decades. For example, Prince George's County has assessed a tax for polluted runoff since 1986. Bowie has charged commercial properties a fee to address polluted runoff since 1988. Salisbury created a volunteary stormwater utility fee in 2014-15 to address poor local water quality caused by polluted runoff and aging storm drain infrastructure. A number of other areas implemented similar fees in the 1990s and 2000s.

Q: If we already pay taxes, why does my local government need to charge additional fees to restore the Bay?

A: With all the challenges they face, state and local governments have often chosen to do the minimum required to reduce polluted runoff. With adequate dedicated funding, local governments can implement practical, proven solutions that were previously too expensive, or that could have only been done if money was taken from other important social services. The fee also provides important leverage for financing projects with bonds or state revolving loans. Regardless of financing option, local creeks and rivers will get cleaner only to the degree local officials fund needed work. Little or no new funding will continue to mean dirty, unhealthy local waters.

Q: We already pay the Bay Restoration Fee ("flush tax"). Why do I have to pay a stormwater fee, too?

A: The Bay Restoration Fund or "flush tax" money goes to upgrading sewage plants. The money is being well spent. Most major plants in the state have been upgraded or are being upgraded, reducing nitrogen pollution into local waters by more than six million pounds a year. The flush tax was doubled in 2012 to finish the job of upgrading sewage plants. Your stormwater fees go to upgrade the stormwater system—the ponds, pipes, gutters, and other structures that channel and treat polluted runoff before it reaches creeks, also reducing flooding. That spending will provide substantial, additional pollution reductions in each community.

Q: Am I being charged the same amount as other property owners with more pavement or hard surfaces?

A: Local governments are given complete freedom to decide not only the size of their fee, but how it is collected. Some opt to charge property owners with more "impervious surfaces" higher fees. Other jurisdictions use a "flat fee." Jurisdictions take different approaches to funding their polluted runoff cleanup.  Contact your local government for more detailed information.

Q: What about the assertion that these stormwater fees are a tax on rain (or a "rain tax")?

A: That moniker is catchy but blatantly false. It is designed to mislead and confuse. The truth is that we are talking about a fee to reduce pollution from water that washes off hard surfaces and empties into local waterways. Runoff pollution is real—it is responsible for no-swimming advisories and beach closures in local waters, fish consumption advisories, and dead zones in the Bay that can't support aquatic life. It also causes localized flooding and property damage. And in many areas, it is the largest source of pollution. If we delay this important work, in the end it will cost more to clean up polluted runoff and reverse its negative impacts to water quality and the Bay's economy.

The bottom line is that this work must be done. There are federal and state requirements to reduce runoff pollution from urban and suburban areas. A fee on impervious surface is often the best model to do this because the fee is connected to the cause of the pollution. Counties that don't have stormwater fees must raise the revenue by other means, such as property taxes or income taxes.

Q: Are stormwater fees used locally?

A: Yes! If your jurisdiction has a fee, it is collected by the county or city and used only in that county or city to fix polluted runoff problems. The money will never go into a state fund, and there is accountability and transparency.

The fee are used for simple, proven solutions that work by slowing down and absorbing much of the polluted runoff. These solutions include planting trees, planting vegetation around streams, restoring stream beds, and using rain barrels and rain gardens. These local projects not only reduce pollution and improve water quality, but also make our communities more beautiful, reduce flooding, and create jobs. Scientific monitoring will verify that the projects are effective and efficient.

Q: For places that have fees, why do they differ?

A: Each county and city is unique, and so are their water quality problems. Counties and cities also have very different fiscal circumstances, which influence how they can pay for polluted runoff cleanup. Despite the amount of work needed to restore Maryland's rivers and streams, Maryland's polluted runoff fees are lower than those in quite a few other states.

Q: Does the Chesapeake Bay Foundation receive funding from any of the fees?

A: Absolutely not. Neither do we receive a penny of funding from the Bay Restoration Fund, or "flush fee." These are government initiatives. We are a non-profit, private agency.

Q: Can I have my fee reduced? I've heard some jurisdictions are offering discounts.

A: Many local governments offer some type of credits or discounts if a property owner takes steps to reduce polluted runoff from his land, and some of those credit or discount programs are required by the 2015 legislation to ensure that fees don't pose an undue hardship on property owners. Contact your local government to learn more about credits or discounts that may be available where you live.

Q: Don't we have bigger pollution problems to worry about? Isn't the water pollution that causes closed beaches and unsafe swim areas caused mostly by sewage spills, not polluted runoff?

A: Polluted runoff from city and suburban landscapes is the only major type of water pollution that is increasing in the region. Pollution from farms, sewage plants, and other sources is decreasing. Thanks to the "flush fee," for example, we've dramatically reduced nitrogen pollution from sewage plants. A handful of sewer systems in the state are so old it will take many years more to stop recurring spills and overflows. Spills from those systems can play a major role in beach closings. But Sally Hornor, a microbiologist with Anne Arundel Community College who has tested county water for years, says bacteria from polluted runoff is the culprit in unsafe swim areas far more often. Sewage spills are occasional. Polluted runoff occurs after every storm generating about one-half inch of rain or more.

Q: Do stormwater utility fees or the cost of polluted runoff clean-up hurt Maryland's business competitiveness?

A: Forward-thinking community leaders believe the benefits to communities from addressing polluted runoff far outweigh the speculative concern that businesses will relocate. These benefits include safe, swimmable, fishable water, as well as the economic benefits that come from having a clean and healthy environment. And if businesses consider relocating to Delaware, Pennsylvania, or Virginia instead of Maryland, they might be surprised to learn that 18 local jurisdictions in Virginia, eight local governments in West Virginia, at least two municipalities in Delaware (including the largest, Wilmington), and several in Pennsylvania already have stormwater fee systems in place—and these numbers are growing. Nationwide, nearly 1,500 jurisdictions—including large cities like Houston and Tampa—have similar policies in place—and they are working.

An egret stands sentinal in Mattawoman Creek. Photo copyright Krista Schlyer/iLCPA great egret stands sentinel in Mattawoman Creek, Charles County, Maryland. Photo © Krista Schlyer/iLCP

Charles County Resurrects Ill-Advised, Unsustainable Comprehensive Plan

"While farming can and is expected to continue in the near future,
the long range land use over time can be replaced by rural residential housing
on large lots as the dominant use."
(draft Charles County Comprehensive Plan, p. 3-13)

Three years ago CBF and a coalition of partner groups, citizens, and business owners stopped a potentially disastrous road project in Charles County called the Cross County Connector (CCC). The victory spurred hope that out-dated land-use policies of the past were just that and that the county would chart a new, more prosperous and environmentally sustainable course through the revision of its comprehensive plan for future growth.

Instead, special interests put forth a proposal that would allow sprawling growth and resurrect the Cross County Connector—the very same road that the state and the Army Corps of Engineers refused to permit. Shockingly, a slim majority of the County's Planning Commission voted to send this plan to the County Commissioners—against the recommendations of its own professional planning staff and contrary to several options developed by citizens, businesses and many others during an extensive public input process.

Low tide off Kent Island. Photo by Michael Rhian DriscollTide pools cover the sand at low tide on Kent Island. Photo by Michael Rhian Driscoll

A Case Study in Where and How Not to Grow:
Four Seasons, Kent Island, Queen Anne's County, MD

Maryland has made progress managing development in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Unfortunately, the proposed Four Seasons project in Queen Anne's County, which illustrates what we shouldn't be doing, is a striking reminder that we still have a way to go.

If constructed, Four Seasons at Kent Island would be one of the largest major subdivisions in Maryland's Critical Area history.

First proposed by a New Jersey developer in the 1990's and approved more than 10 years ago, this subdivision—on 425 acres of farmland between the banks of the Chester River and Cox Creek—is the wrong project in the wrong place. It was ill-conceived then and it remains ill-conceived.  More than 1,000 units of housing are proposed within Maryland's Critical Area, on mostly flat land that is significantly vulnerable to current flooding during heavy rains and the certainty of more and more storm surges as sea level rises.

The problems here are scale (way too big), design (1980's sprawl instead of clustered and compact, with small-scale, green runoff practices), and location (where flooding is commonplace and will become more so, on the banks of two bodies of water). The other problem—a big one—is that development would occur in the face of the Chesapeake Clean Water Blueprint, which requires a reduction in polluted runoff, but which wasn't in effect when the project was approved. 

Developers and those in the county who support this project argue:

  • it complies with the Comprehensive Plan and zoning and has all local approvals necessary for the first phase;
  • it obtained a "growth allocation," permission from the Critical Area Commission to develop land which ordinarily is protected by law;
  • it has sewer and water;
  • and there is other development nearby. 

The developer has also agreed to "voluntarily" give up 131-acres across the creek, move polluted runoff outfalls out of tidal wetlands, and raise first floors a couple of feet.

But none of these statements means the project is a good one, nor in the right place.

The facts are:

  • while the project's development site is recognized in county planning documents, the Stevensville/Chester Community Plan language is actually critical of projects this massive;
  • growth allocation was granted 13 years ago, before the Chesapeake Clean Water Blueprint and the latest science on sea level rise;
  • there is development nearby, but the land targeted for Four Seasons is situated in a uniquely sensitive area between the Chester River and Cox Creek;
  • the state's Wetlands Administrator and Secretary of the Environment have both concluded that polluted runoff from the project would impact the fragile tidal wetlands adjacent to the site;
  • access to the 131 acres across the creek was problematic for the developer given that permission was denied for a crossing at the creek; 
  • it makes no sense to build stormwater outfalls where they could be overwhelmed and undermined by tides, but there will still be increased levels of polluted runoff to the Bay;
  • and, unless the buildings were raised, storm surge flooding would have become an even more destructive.

A final consideration is the developer's environmental record. Not too long ago it paid huge fines to the federal government for failure to manage polluted runoff requirements from its construction operations.

The bottom line is, does putting a project of this magnitude make sense for Kent Island,

  • where traffic is already a problem, with limited ingress and egress;
  • where flooding regularly occurs and more serious, climate-related flooding is a near-certainty;
  • and where the massive subdivision would drain into a river and a creek that are important tributaries of a Bay struggling—and under federal mandate—to recover? 

In other words, does this project make sense?

The straightforward answer is no.

What About the Next Development Proposal?

There are many steps citizens and state and local leaders can take to make situations like this less likely to occur.

  • Maryland's Board of Public Works, which must grant a license to projects disturbing any tidal wetlands, can be given the authority to look more comprehensively at a project of this size and location.
  • The Critical Area Commission could be given more authority to review, shape or reject applications for growth in sensitive areas.
  • There could be a more comprehensive review process for developments like this, which have potentially substantial public health and safety, and environmental implications.
  • A process could be developed to address grandfathered projects or those with old "development rights agreements" where circumstances have obviously changed.    

(left to right) Pam Abramson and Amy Reyes of RALE (Residents Against Landsdale Expansion) at the future site of an 1,100 new home subdivision in Frederick County. Photo by Tom Pelton/CBF Staff(left to right) Pam Abramson and Amy Reyes of RALE (Residents Against Landsdale Expansion) at the future site of an 1,100 new home subdivision in Frederick County. Photo by Tom Pelton/CBF Staff

Some Counties Are Working Hard to Implement Maryland's New Anti-Sprawl Law; Others are Not

By enacting the Sustainable Growth & Agricultural Preservation Act of 2012, the state Administration and Maryland General Assembly took a critical step forward in protecting our waters, open spaces, and rural agricultural economy from the impacts of harmful sprawl. This new law, which took effect on July 1, 2012, seeks greater accountability and predictability by encouraging counties to map future growth into categorical "tiers." Counties were to adopt "tier maps” for future growth by December 31, 2012 or face limits on new growth outside areas with existing sewers.

Many localities are working hard to implement the law. Unfortunately, a few counties appear to be falling short of the law and are putting our waterways and rural lands at risk. Some counties, such as Frederick and Cecil, have adopted maps that do not measure up to the standards in the law, according to the Maryland Department of Planning (MDP). As a result, these maps do not adequately protect our waters and rural lands from overdevelopment.

Below you will find a map of the "Septics Law" adoption status by county.

Map: Maryland septic law adoption by county. Source: Maryland Department of Planning

Click to view larger

It isn't fair to saddle existing residents and businesses with the substantial costs of cleaning up new pollution from harmful sprawl. We are making progress in reducing pollution to the Bay. Development is the only major pollution source on the increase. It is only fair—and sensible—to target new growth where it will pollute less.

Maryland's General Assembly is in session now. The state legislature must stand firm and reject attempts to scuttle or weaken the law, which is critical to the success of the Chesapeake Clean Water Blueprint.

For more information visit the Maryland Department of Planning website.


Reinvigorating CBF's Student Leadership Program

The Education department is reinvigorating the Student Leadership program. Today's students are not just kids who will inherit the Bay several years down the line. They have already inherited it and they have just as much power to clean the Bay as older citizens do. Through student-directed projects focused on Chesapeake Clean Water Blueprint campaign priorities, CBF student leaders will realize their legacy as the inheritors of the Chesapeake, while discovering the capacity within themselves as successful environmental leaders.

MASC President Mark Ritterpusch and CBF Jeff Rogge. By Emmy Nicklin.Maryland Association of Student Councils' Former President Mark Ritterpusch  (left) with CBF's Jeff  Rogge (right). Photo by Emmy Nicklin/CBF Staff.

Middletown High Schoolers participate in a CBF Fox Island experience. Photo by CBF Staff.Middletown High Schoolers participate in a CBF Fox Island experience. Photo by CBF Staff.

Jeff Rogge and Lucas Johnson have been hired to work full time on the Student Leadership campaign, identifying and supporting environmentally active students in projects and activities that align around CBF priorities such as the Blueprint campaign. Lucas will be focusing on students who have participated in CBF education programs, and Jeff will be networking with organized student groups, such as the Maryland Association of Student Councils.

In his prior role as the Education Field Senior Manager for the MD/DC/PA team, Jeff was presented with the Susan Nash Travetto Friend of MASC Award, for his efforts on behalf of CBF. Lucas returns to the Education department, having previously worked on the No Child Left Inside campaign. Most recently, he was a field organizer for the Obama Presidential Campaign. He worked in the electoral battleground of Williamsburg, Virginia, where he coordinated Obama supporters to persuade undecided voters and turn out other supporters.

Both Jeff and Lucas are very excited about empowering students to support the Blueprint and Save the Bay™.

From the Ground Up

Stocking the refrigerators at The Food Bank with fresh Clagett Farm vegetables. Photo courtesy Capital Area Food Bank
Produce from Clagett Farm makes its way to the refrigerators of The Food Bank. Photo courtesy Capital Area Food Bank

Social Justice Grows from CBF's Clagett Farm

For 20 years the Chesapeake Bay Foundation's Clagett Farm has provided free, fresh produce to people living in poverty and near-poverty in Washington, D.C. The project, a collaboration with Capital Area Food Bank, blends local, sustainable organic agriculture with social justice. CBF calls the program, "From the Ground Up."

Feeding the Hungry

Here's how it works.

Customers of Clagett's community supported agriculture (CSA) program buy shares of the farm's harvest beforehand, and collect whatever is in season weekly, from salad greens in early May through winter squash in November. Regular customers pay a rate that covers enough program expenses to allow the farm to donate 40-50 percent of its annual production to low-income people through the Food Bank. That's about 35,000 pounds of produce a year on average.

Participants can pick up their shares either at an appointed place and time within the District or at the farm in Upper Marlboro, which is only 14 miles east of the U.S. Capitol Building, just off the Capital Beltway. In addition, the CSA offers reduced-price shares and work shares to low-income families. An extensive group of volunteer weeders and pickers helps to keep the program's operating costs low.

The result is that people of all income levels in the Washington, D.C. region can receive top-quality vegetables and fruits from this local farm, while helping to support an extraordinarily effective and efficient food bank that speaks to the needs of people around our Nation's Capital.

Therein lies the second half of the "From the Ground Up" story. The Food Bank carefully selects recipient member agencies—food pantries, clinics, after-school programs, soup kitchens, and shelters—with the organizational strength and the facilities to maintain quality and efficiently distribute a broad range of produce to its clients.  For 2012, there are nine participating agencies in the District, suburban Maryland, and Northern Virginia. 

Feeding the Soul

Three boys enjoy the sunflowers at Clagett Farm. Photo by CBF Staff.
Students enjoy a day on the farm. Photo by CBF Staff

The Food Bank also offers a wide variety of educational programs. Some of these programs are in the form of classes and demonstrations, including getting D.C. kids out to Clagett for actual harvesting and other farm fun.

Recently seen at Clagett: children from the city ride a hay wagon, arrive at a farm field, and spread out excitedly to pick sweet corn, okra, and tomatoes under the careful supervision of Carrie Vaughn, Clagett Farm's Vegetable Production Manager. She shows them how to pick the produce respectfully. They bring their prizes back to the wagon in bins and head to the farm's washing station to clean them for transport to the Food Bank.

An important element of the CBF/Farm Bank collaboration is an orientation day for participating agencies at Clagett with Carrie Vaughn, her husband, Rob Vaughn, who serves as Assistant Farm Manager, and Michael Heller, Clagett's Manager for the past thirty years. The following excerpted letter, addressed to Food Bank staffer Dylan Menguy, demonstrates the value of this orientation:

"I left the farm with a wealth of information, and I felt empowered to educate my staff and community on the miracles occurring at Clagett Farm. I know that if I had not taken the time to go to the Clagett Farm orientation, I would have missed a great opportunity to learn about the great works of the farm.

Thank you. I am grateful for the opportunity."

Gwen Pope Manager
SHABACH! Emergency Empowerment Center
2101 Kent Village Drive
Landover, Maryland 20785

Students learn about the Bay aboard a CBF workboat. Photo by CBF StaffPhoto by CBF Staff

Maryland Is the First State to Require Environmental Literacy

The Maryland State Board of Education now requires that each public school student be environmentally literate before he or she graduates from high school. The historic vote cements Maryland as the first state in the country to approve a graduation requirement in environmental literacy, a credit to Governor O'Malley, to board members, and to Dr. Nancy Grasmick, the former State Superintendent of Schools.

The state school board vote clarifies for schools that each child must receive a comprehensive, multi-disciplinary environmental education that meets the approval of the State Superintendent of Schools. Regulations given final approval by the board provide critical flexibility and oversight for school systems as they develop effective environmental literacy programs aligned with the Maryland State Environmental Literacy Standards.

While many exemplary environmental education programs already exist in some Maryland schools, not all students have access to these programs. That can occur when schools feel compelled to emphasize math and reading instruction over science and other subjects because of the 2002 federal No Child Left Behind law. School districts must now move beyond standard courses that provide minimal focus on the environment. With programs that use an interdisciplinary approach, CBF's education programs are the ideal way for classes to get experience outside and to tie classroom lessons to real world situations. Whether the topic is STEM material, local literature, or even music, using the environment as an integrating context brings local issues to life and now directly helps students graduate.

Studies show environmental education has a measurable, positive impact on student achievement not only in science but in math, reading, and social studies. Business leaders also increasingly believe an environmentally literate workforce is critical in a burgeoning green economy. Field experiences and related activities, when part of the regular school curriculum in environmental education, also help students become healthier.

"This is a defining moment for education in Maryland," said Governor O'Malley. "By approving this environmental graduation requirement, the Board of Education is ensuring that our young people graduate with a keen understanding of and connection to the natural world. Only through exposure to nature and education about our fragile ecosystem can we create the next generation of stewards."

CBF's Maryland Office

6 Herndon Avenue
Annapolis, MD  21403

Phone: 410-268-8816
Office Hours: 8:30 a.m.-5:00 p.m. M-F

Alison Prost, Maryland Office Executive Director
Alison Prost
Maryland Executive Director

CBF Headquarters
(Annapolis) 410-268-8816
(Baltimore) 410-269-0481
(D.C.) 301-261-2350

Eastern Shore Office

Baltimore Initiative
Terry Cummings

More Links


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In the News

11.23.15 - CBF Press Release Innovative CBF Farmer Program to Expand; Higher Farm Profits, Cleaner Water Will Result

11.23.15 - Oyster Expo airs fishery woes

11.20.15 - Environmental groups: Bad time to drop 'rain tax' amid high fish kills in Md.

11.18.15 - State votes to license more than a thousand senior homes on Kent Island

11.18.15 - CBF Press Statement CBF: The Fight Isn't over against Four Seasons Development Project

11.18.15 - Confusion and Frustration as Maryland High Court Hears Arguments over Stormwater Permits

11.18.15 - Environmental groups concerned as Baltimore County phases out 'rain tax'

11.18.15 - Environmentalists want this state to take chicken poop out of its clean energy plan

11.17.15 - County Council votes to phase out controversial 'rain tax'

11.16.15 - Maritime museum announces living shoreline project

11.16.15 - Baltimore County Council approves phasing out stormwater fee

11.16.15 - Video Rally before unanimous vote repealing rain tax in Baltimore County

11.16.15 - On the Bay: After years of delay, state to again consider license for Kent Island housing development

11.16.15 - Political storm in Baltimore County over so-called "Rain Tax"

11.13.15 - Farmers v. Chesapeake Bay, Part III

11.13.15 - Video Toxic algae suspended in big Middle River fish kill

11.10.15 - Can Food Production and a Clean Chesapeake Bay Coexist?

11.09.15 - 'Oyster Expo' set for Easton Nov. 18

11.04.15 - Maryland, Virginia support EPA's fight against Clean Power Plan overturn

11.03.15 - Ellie Altman to receive Conservation Landscaping Award

11.03.15 - World literacy toward ag vital, too

11.02.15 - MD court to hear appeals over stormwater permits for Baltimore, 4 counties

10.30.15 - Chesapeake Bay Foundation helps farmers keep cows, bacteria out of streams

10.27.15 - Communication about Bay is vital

10.26.15 - Bay Foundation questions Baltimore County's move to eliminate 'rain tax'

10.22.15 - Oyster restoration effort underway in Patapsco River

10.22.15 - Baltimore Oyster Partnership to Plant 5 Million Baby Oysters by 2020

10.22.15 - Weekend Lineup: Oct. 23-25

10.21.15 - 5 million oysters to be planted in the Patapsco River by 2020

10.21.15 - WSSC agrees to reduce pollution in Potomac River from treatment plant

10.20.15 - Saturday: The Great Baltimore Oyster Festival

10.15.15 - Panel to Discuss "Can Food Production and a Clean Chesapeake Bay Coexist?"

10.06.15 - Harris Creek reef restoration at 350 acres, is largest ever

09.25.15 - Teach your children well: Education mandate propels environmental programs in schools

09.25.15 - 'Stalking' tactics raise ire of charter skippers

09.23.15 - Scientists say Maryland's gigantic new oyster reef is a pearl that could save the Chesapeake Bay

09.21.15 - Farm Bureau Wants Supreme Court to Toss Bay Clean Water Blueprint

09.21.15 - Talbot County farmer among first in area to adopt two-stage ditch

09.21.15 - CBF Press Release Farm Bureau Prepares to Ask Supreme Court to Throw Out the Chesapeake Bay Clean Water Blueprint

09.15.15 - A final oyster planting in Harris Creek

09.13.15 - Md. gets schools, students involved in environment

09.10.15 - Farm tour highlights importance of Bay-friendly practices

09.08.15 - Should Md. put moratorium on poultry houses?

09.08.15 - Environmentalists call for moratorium on Shore poultry growth

09.08.15 - EPA analyzes animal ag regulations for Md., Del.

09.04.15 - EPA: Maryland farmers lead in pollution reduction efforts

09.02.15 - Maryland farmers attempt to reduce pollution

09.01.15 - Growing food on a farm for the Bay

09.01.15 - Md., Del. on different paths toward Chesapeake cleanup

08.31.15 - EPA praises Maryland's farm pollution control efforts, skip shortcomings

08.31.15 - Delaware farms can do more to keep water clean

08.28.15 - Want to help the Bay? Plant seeds in September

08.27.15 - Delaney hosts workshop on climate action

08.25.15 - Video Spending a morning on the Chesapeake Bay

08.25.15 - Chesapeake Bay Foundation educational boat trip

08.23.15 - Md. teachers get schooled in the envrionment at the Chesapeake Bay

08.19.15 - Water testing partnership finding high bacteria counts in popular swimming areas

08.17.15 - Remarks at recent fact-finding hearing on flooding weren't all that reassuring

08.16.15 - Many groups working for Bay cleanup

08.13.15 - Environmental literacy made Md. graduation requirement

08.13.15 - Green Gardens, Clean Water

08.13.15 - Salisbury Joins Healthy Waters Round Table

08.12.15 - Conowingo Dam fish-lift overhaul urged to restore Susquehanna's shad, eels

08.10.15 - Project turning a vacant Baltimore lot into a greenspace

08.08.15 - Crabby governors duel over Chesapeake delicacy

08.08.15 - Q&A with Dick Franyo: Boatyard Bar & Grill owner discusses his support of sailing, maritime events

08.07.15 - Teen of the Week: Annapolis High grad didn't take the easy route to the Big Easy

07.30.15 - Time to walk the walk on clean waters

07.29.15 - Watershed states gather to reaffirm commitment to bay cleanup

07.29.15 - Action needed on Bay cleanup

07.27.15 - Camp for teachers

07.22.15 - Manchester Valley High administrators turn focus to environment

07.17.15 - Environmentalists 'cautiously optimistic' for Maryland's bay cleanup

07.17.15 - Crews replenishing Wicomico oyster reefs

07.16.15 - Water tests indicate presence of fecal matter

07.16.15 - Report shows high levels of bacteria in Frederick county streams

07.16.15 - Stream testing shows high levels of bacteria in some popular Harford swimming spots

07.16.15 - Video Harmful bacteria found in Frederick, Md. freshwater lakes, streams

07.16.15 - CBF Press Release Water Tests Show High Levels of Harmful Bacteria in Some Fresh Water Streams and Lakes in Frederick, Howard, and Harford Counties

07.14.15 - Assessment tracks Bay states' environmental practices

07.14.15 - CBF Press Release Milestone Assessment Finds Mixed Results in Maryland

07.14.15 - Group collects shells in effort to save the Chesapeake Bay

07.08.15 - Federal appeals court upholds EPA's bay cleanup measures

07.06.15 - Appeals court upholds Chesapeake Bay cleanup

07.03.15 - Chesapeake Bay Health: The Good, the Bad, and the Flooding

07.03.15 - Bay improves, but far from saved

07.01.15 - Experts debate whether rays are fishery threat


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