December 28, 2010
Bay Health Improves
Report Card Shows 3-Point Increase, but System Still in Critical Condition
(RICHMOND, VA)—The Chesapeake Bay is showing encouraging signs of rebounding but is still in critical condition as a result of pollution, according to the Chesapeake Bay Foundation's (CBF) 2010 State of the Bay Report. The report comes as the federal Environmental Protection Agency is preparing to release its pollution budget designed to reduce pollution and dramatically improve water quality.
"That the Bay is getting better is a huge development, but sadly not the whole story," said CBF President William C. Baker. "Dead zones, fish kills, and water contact advisories are constant reminders of how far we still must go."
The numeric index of the Bay's health jumped three points from 2008 to 2010, with eight of 13 indicators rising. The indicator for the health of the blue crab population spiked 15 points, as the Bay's population increased significantly last year. Also, underwater grasses showed steady progress for the fourth year in a row.
But the overall health index of the Bay is 31 out of 100, which means it is still a system dangerously out of balance.
The report is a comprehensive measure of the Bay's health, evaluating 13 indicators: oysters, shad, crabs, striped bass (rockfish), underwater grasses, wetlands, forested buffers, resource lands, toxics, water clarity, dissolved oxygen, and phosphorus and nitrogen pollution. CBF scientists compile and examine the best available historical and up-to-date information for each indicator and assign it an index score and letter grade. Taken together, these indicators offer an assessment of Bay health.
The unspoiled Bay ecosystem described by Captain John Smith in the 1600s, with its extensive forests and wetlands, clear water, abundant fish and oysters, and lush growths of submerged vegetation serves as the benchmark, and would rate a 100 on CBF's scale.
"We are at a tipping point," Baker said. "If EPA stands firm, and the states deliver on their commitments, the Bay will become resilient and bountiful. At the same time, reducing pollution will create jobs and improve local economies."
|Cover image: ©2010 Garth Lenz/iLCP
Download the 2010 State of the Bay report(PDF)
By the end of December, EPA must issue a pollution diet for the Bay watershed called a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL). (Note: The EPA released the TMDL the day after this press release was published.) The TMDL is required under the federal Clean Water Act and court rulings.
This diet will require Maryland and other Bay states, and ultimately each local jurisdiction, to ratchet down pollution to local creeks, rivers, and the Bay from all sources, including farms, sewage treatment plants, urban and suburban streets, parking lots and lawns. State and local governments will be held responsible for those reductions or potentially lose federal funding and be denied federal permits.
The Bay states and the District of Columbia were required to submit a Watershed Implementation Plan (WIP) to EPA specifying how it planned to meet the new pollution diet. Preliminary versions of the each jurisdictions' plans were deficient in specific details, the agency concluded. CBF has urged the EPA to stand firm in its expectations and to impose consequences on jurisdictions that fail to establish and fully implement plans that meet pollution reduction goals on schedule.
"Let's celebrate actions taken by Virginians as we witness signs of improvement, while concurrently, rededicating efforts to fully restore the Bay - which still operates at only a third of its potential - to ensure healthy waters and a vigorous economy," said CBF Virginia Executive Director Ann Jennings. "We can achieve a clean Bay if Virginia holds itself accountable to achieving the goals of the Watershed Implementation Plan and complies with the Bay pollution diet (TMDL). With leadership and commitment from both public and private sectors, good news stories, such as blue crab and oyster increases seen this year, will continue."