One order directed federal agencies like EPA to identify at least two existing regulations to be repealed to offset the costs of any new regulations. The other directed agencies to review various environmental rules and determine how they might be changed to help industry or be repealed altogether. Numerous changes have been proposed that will affect the Chesapeake Bay and the implementation of the Blueprint, the historic federal and state partnership to restore the Bay. CBF is actively monitoring these developments and opposes any rollbacks that will impede efforts to restore the Bay.
MOTOR VEHICLE OR CAFE STANDARDS
Cars and light-duty trucks are a large source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and NOx. If vehicles can travel farther on a gallon of gas, they will burn less fuel and emit less GHGs and NOx.
EPA and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) recently announced changes to the current Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) and GHG efficiency standards (tailpipe emissions). If implemented, those standards would have resulted in significant decreases to nitrogen deposition to the Bay and would have helped to address climate change issues from which the Bay is suffering. Their new proposal, entitled the Safer Affordable Fuel-Efficient Vehicles Rule (SAFE) would relax standards for Model Year 2021-2026 vehicles. One of the proposals is to freeze these standards at the levels set for 2020.
CBF will submit comments opposing this proposal because it will impede the success of the Chesapeake Clean Water Blueprint and lead to worsening climate change. Comments are due on 10/26/18. Go to the docket
THE REPEAL AND REPLACEMENT OF THE CLEAN POWER PLAN
The 2015 Clean Power Plan (CPP) set the first-ever limits on carbon pollution from U.S. power plants. It would have resulted in significant reductions of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the power sector, but it was never implemented.
In 2017, EPA proposed to repeal the CPP and change the legal interpretation of Section 111(d) of the Clean Air Act, upon which the CPP was based. EPA recently announced its replacement plan, the Affordable Clean Energy (ACE) Rule. Among other things, this proposal relaxes the requirements of the CPP and rather than establishing emission reduction targets, allows the states to determine how much, if at all, to cut emissions at plants.
CBF submitted comments opposing the repeal of the CPP and will submit comments opposing ACE because, for one, it will not achieve the same reductions in GHG emissions as the CPP would have. We are relying upon those reductions for the implementation of the Chesapeake Clean Water Blueprint and for the associated benefits in addressing climate change. Comments are due on 10/31/18. Go to the docket
OVER THE LAST YEAR
CBF opposed several regulatory proposals that would change the way federal rules are promulgated.
SCIENTIFIC STUDIES AND COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS
EPA proposed a new rule that would limit the use of scientific studies when issuing regulations. As one example, human health studies that don't reveal the identity of patients would no longer be considered when issuing regulations regarding air pollution. There is also a proposed exemption clause that allows the Administrator to determine -separately from the requirements of the proposed rule—when he/she can consider science that doesn't meet the parameters of the proposed rule. Should this rule be finalized it will result in a loophole that allows EPA to consider what is has called "secret science" selectively.
In another EPA notice, the Agency suggests that it will review its policies regarding how cost-benefit analysis are to be conducted in issuing regulations. One concern that CBF has is that EPA will propose a rule that narrows or limits the consideration of ancillary benefits in its rulemaking. For example, in looking at the costs and benefits of reducing pollution from power plants, it is important to consider both the human health benefits as well as the benefits of reducing pollution to local rivers, streams, and the Chesapeake Bay.
In response to these two proposals, CBF submitted comments encouraging EPA to consider all available science and all of the benefits associated with environmental regulations when promulgating its rules. We continue to monitor developments for both of these proposals.
NEPA (THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT)
NEPA is often referred to as the "Magna Carta" of environmental laws. It provides the public with an opportunity to weigh in on the development of major federal actions, like the approval of the Atlantic Coast Pipeline. The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) requested comment on whether, among other things, these processes should be streamlined. They hinted at efforts to reduce opportunities for public participation and reducing the thoroughness of environmental reviews.
CBF opposes any efforts that weaken NEPA and reduce opportunities for citizens to be involved in decisions that will impact the Chesapeake Bay. We continue to monitor developments and await CEQ's announcement of a proposed rule.
We expect several changes to regulations that will impact the health of the Chesapeake Bay over the next year. One likely change is EPA's new definition of Waters of the United States (WOTUS).
WOTUS (WATERS OF THE UNITED STATES)
In 2015, EPA finalized a new definition of WOTUS that provided clarity about what types of wetlands require Section 402 and Section 404 Clean Water Act permits that are essential to Bay restoration. EPA and the Army Corps of Engineers have proposed repealing this 2015 definition and have indicated that they may introduce a new definition in the coming year.
CBF is monitoring these developments as they could have an impact on how wetlands are protected in the watershed.
We encourage our members to get involved and to check our website often for updates regarding regulatory changes that will impact the Chesapeake Bay.